(Chemical Symbol V.) – Element No. 23 of the periodic system; atomic weight 50.95. Gray-white, hard metal, unaffected by atmospheric influences or alkalies but soluble in most strong acids; melting point 3119° F., boiling point about 6150° F., specific gravity 5.87. It cannot be electrodeposited. Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of tool steels (1) Elevates coarsening temperature of austenite (promotes fine grain) (2) Increases hardenability (when dissolved) (3) Resists tempering and causes marked secondary hardening.